Local lifestyle

September Various ways of apple cultivation  Ⅵ 9月 リンゴ栽培の様々な方法

葉取りりんごLeaf removal appleと葉とらずりんご Not take leaves apple、有袋栽培と無袋栽培のこと
Apples with leaves removed and apples with leaves attached, cultivation methods using and without using bag

9月に入ると、リンゴ農家は、りんごをおおっている葉を摘み取り、より多く日光を当てるようにする葉取り作業が始まります。青森県平川市の葛西 厚平さん(56歳)のリンゴ園でも盛んに作業が行われていました。
In September, farmers start to remove the leaves covering the apples in order for apples to get expose to sunlight.

In Hirakawa City, Aomori Prefecture a lot of work are being done at the apple farm of Mr. Kasai by himself.

りんごの着色を良くするための作業で、とても手間がかかります。しかし、葉を摘み過ぎると光合成で作る養分がりんごに行き渡らなくなるため、摘み過ぎないようにしなければなりません。出来たリンゴは、全体的に赤く色づいた美味しそうなリンゴになります。
It takes a lot of time and effort to get the apples to a certain color. But removing the leaves is not and easy task, where when too much leaves are removed it may affect the photosynthesis process causing less nutrients transferring to the apples. Hence farmers have to be very cautious about how much leaves that will be removed. The finish product of apples will be red in color and delicious in taste.

一方、葉を取らずに、収穫まで残す「葉取らずりんご」もあります。無袋りんごで、なおかつ葉を摘み取っていない自然体のりんごのことです。葉取らず栽培で育ったりんごは葉の陰になる部分があるため、陽が当たらない部分は赤くならず、見ためは良くないですが、葉で作られた養分(でんぷん)が、果実に蓄えられて糖になり、糖度の高い甘いリンゴになります。
On the other hand, there are apples that leaves are not remove from it known as “Apples with natural leaves”. These apples are cover with their own natural leaves rather than cover by a bag.

Apples covered by natural leaves will not be fully red in color since the leaves does not fully cover the apples resulting in area that are still expose to sunlight. Although the color may not be perfect red, but the nutrients made from the leaves (starch) are stored as sugar, producing much more sweetness to the apple sin terms of flavor.

もう一つ、リンゴには、「有袋栽培」Bag cultivationと「無袋栽培」No bag cultivationがあります。その違いが、一般の人でも分かるのは、名前に付けられた「サン」。

太陽をいっぱい浴びるので「サンつがる」とか「サンふじ」というように、前に「サン SUN」が付くものが、「無袋栽培」のりんごです。
Another cultivation method is “Bag cultivation” and “Bag-free cultivation”.
Differences and be spot by any people by “Sun” being added on front of the species name.

With apples that were being exposed to extreme sunlight like Sun-Tsugaru and Sun-Fuji where bag-free cultivation method is being applied.

Sun-Fuji  and Sun-Tsugaru

葛西さんの所でも、有袋と無袋の両方をやっています。

手間のかかる、有袋はジョナゴールドとふじです。ほとんどの種類のリンゴは無袋で栽培しています。
At Mr. Kasai’s farm both bag cultivation and bag free cultivation are simultaneously being apply.

Apple species which took longer labor time to produce such as Junior Gold and Fuji are produce by bag cultivation. Most of the apple species are cultivated by bag free cultivation.

「無袋栽培」は、袋を掛けずに栽培するリンゴです。一般的には、外見をよくするために反射シートを敷き、果実の周りの葉を摘み取っています。「無袋栽培」のリンゴの特徴は、太陽の光を多く浴びて育つため、甘味が増すことです。葉取り作業はありますが、袋かけと袋はぎの作業がないため、省力生産になり、多くの農家が「無袋栽培」になりつつあります。
“Bag-free cultivation” is an apple that is cultivated without a bag. In general, a reflective sheet is placed to improve the appearance, and the leaves around the fruit are picked. The characteristic of “Bag-free cultivation” apples is that they are grow by exposing to extreme sunlight enhancing the sweetness of the apples. Although leaves removing work is still being carry out, in order to reduce the labor in putting on and removing the bag, labor-saving production is taking place, and many farmers are becoming “bag-free cultivation”.

一方、果実が小さなうちに袋をかけ、収穫前に袋を取り、 一気に着色させたのが「有袋栽培」のりんごです。均一に色付きをよくするために地面に反射シートを敷いたり、 色ムラがないように果実の周りの葉を摘み取ります。大変 手間をかけて色ムラなく真っ赤なりんごに仕上げます。

Bag cultivation is applied by covering up the apples with a bag when they are still small and removing the bag before harvesting it and putting on the color.

To have the color of the apples spread evenly, a reflective sheet in place on the ground and leaves surrounding the apples will be removed. Although it cost more time, this method guarantees the production of blood red apples.

手間も経費もかかっているため、りんごの価格は高くなってしまいますが、有袋の良い点は、病害虫から果実を守り、長期保存が出来ることです。CA貯蔵(CA storage)で春先まで美味しく食べられるのは、「有袋栽培」のりんごです。しかし、2018年の青森県の有袋栽培率は、19%になり、周年販売が出来なくなる恐れが出てきました。

リンゴ王国青森でも、高齢化と共に、省力生産に向かっています。それでも美味しさリンゴを作ることは、農家は手間を惜しみません。

葉とりが終わると、色づきを良くするための収穫前の最終的な作業、「球回し」が始まります。

When more labor time is used the price of the apples rose as well. But by bag cultivation, it reduced chances of pest and can be preserve for a longer period of time. Using CA storage these apples can be store until coming spring season and the taste remains the same.
In the year 2018, the applied percentage for bag cultivation in Aomori prefecture was a merely 19%. This causes the fear of these apple would not be able to sell all year round.

Apple kingdom of Aomori prefecture is now working towards labor-saving production since its aging society is increasing.

But still in order to produce high quality apples, it is very time consuming for the farmers.

After the process of leaves removing is done, it now comes to the last process before the harvesting starts that is to create the color on the apple. This is known as “Ball rotation”.

 

 

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